T I I E
A. S. J I ALU DIE,
Wire and Wire Rope Works,
OFFICE AND DEPOT:
Nos. 113 and 115 PINE STREET,
SAN FRANCISCO, ( AL.
University of California
t_". A. MURDUI K 8 I 0„ BOOK AN!) I< n: I • l< I N I ! KS,
A. S. HALLIDIE,
IRON A.ND STEEL WIRE ROPES,
OK H,r, KINDS AND SIZES FOB
Office and Depot: 113 and 115 Pine Street,
Sole Proprietor of the Patent Endless Ropeway, for
Transporting Material over Difficult Roads, se-
cured by numerous TJ S. Patents.
Patent Grip PuUey for Transmitting Power.
'Wire Suspension Bridge Work.
Agency of Messrs. Richard Johnson and Nephew, Wire
Manufacturers, Galvanizers and Dealers in Iron.
Metals Imported on Favorable Terms.
Agency of the Pacific Wire Manufacturing Company,
»9 OOS'Z VZ.*? d
A. S. HALLIDIE,
Wire and Wire Rope Works,
OFFICE AND DEPOT:
os. 113 and 116 PINE STREET,
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.
C. A. MURDOCK & CO., BOOK AND JOB PRINTERS,
No. 532 Clay Street.
Advantages of Wir*- Rope. S
Advantage* of Wire Ropeway or Tramway 33
Bridgc-s--Wire BaSpSDJafoS 43
ITnflVl Win- Ropeway 31
Galvanized Iron Wire Rope for Ship's Standing Rigging t>
(Antral Remarks on Wire Rope (i
Iron and Steel Ferry Ropes 21
Iron and Steel Wire Rope for Hoisting 13
Length of Cut Nails and number in one lb 45
Lightning Conductors 11
Measure of Rock, Earth, etc. 23
Melting Points of Alloys 47
Miscellaneous Items 49
On the Power of Blocks and Tackles 8
On the Size of Pulleys and Drums. 42
Overshot Water Wheel 46
Patent Grip Pulley 25
Patent Grip Pulleys for Transmission of Power 40
Rule to Ascertain Velocity of Running Water 41
Rule to find quantity of Water which will flow out of an Opening 41
Size, Weight, Length and Strength of Iron Wire 48
Steel Wire Rope for Derrick Fall Ropes 21
Suspension Bridges 43
Table of Transverse Strength of American Timber 16
Table of Transverse Strength of Cast and Wrought Iron 16
Tabular Scale of Strength, Size and Weight of Wire Rope, Hemp, etc. 50
Tensile Strength of Materials 12
Testimonials to Tramway 38
Tiller Ropes 10
Transverse Strength of Materials 15
Transmission of Power by Wire Rope - 24
Transmission of Power (Illustration) 29
Transmission Pulleys, table of dimensions, etc 28
Transportation of Material by Endless Wire Ropeway or Wire Tramway 31
Transportation of Material (Illustration) 38
Value of au Ounce of Gold, 750 to 950 fine 49
Velocity of Streams and Resistance of Soils 23
Velocity of Water in PipeB 44
Water Required in Working Quartz 49
Weight of a Cubic Foot of Different Materials 23
Weight of a Superficial Foot of Plates, Different Metals 47
Wire — table of size, weight and length 48
Weight of Bar Iron 46
Wire and Wire Cord 11
Wire Cables for Suspension Flumes, etc 19
Wire Rope as a Suspended Carriage Way 19
Wire Rope for Suspending Hydraulic Hose 20
Wire Rope for Derrick Guys 22
Wire Rope for River Mining 22
Wire Ropeway 31
Wire Strand for Fencing 20
Wire Suspension Bridges and Flumes 43
IRON AND STEEL WIRE ROPE WORKS,
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL
I am prepared to furnish the Mining, Manufacturing, Ship-
ping and Ferry Interests on the Pacific Coast, with Iron and
Steel Wire Rope of all kinds, in any length, size and quantity
desired, from my manufactory in San Francisco, on favorable
terms. A. S. HALLIDIE.
"Wire Rope is now generally employed for Mining, Ferry,
Shipping and general purposes; and forty years' experience
has proved that it possesses many great advantages over
Hempen Ropes — being lighter, stronger, more durable and
cheap! r than Hemp or Manila, and is not affected by atmos 1
The many purposes to which Wire Rope has been applied
where Hemp Rope would soon have been destroyed, and Chain
found too heavy, soon induced its general adoption through-
out the mining regions of the civilized world ; wherever shafts
and incline planes are sunk to great depths and the universal
preference given to it over other ropes and chain, is a sufficient
guarantee of its superiority. In California, the consumption
of rope for mining purposes is enormous. Until the erection
of my Works, Wire Rope was not in the market, although
the requirements of the mining and shipping interests had
long since demanded it. This demand I am now able to sup-
ply, having, during the past year, erected entirely new works,
with machinery of the most approved pattern, capable of
turning out all kinds of Flat and Round Wire Rope which is
b MECHANICAL MINEBS' GUIDE.
guaranteed to be equal to any made. The Wire Hope "Works
being under the immediate superintendence of an experienced
"Wire Rope maker, many years superintendent of one of the
largest Wire Rope works in Great Britain. I am enabled to
manufacture an article suitable for this market, in every re-
Two kinds of Wire Rope are made, Coarse Rope having 42
wires and Flexible Rope having 114 wires. The latter being
used for hoisting, etc. , when the sheaves or drums are of
It is almost impossible to specify the precise uses to which
Wire Rope is adapted in preference to hempen ropes or chain ;
but for the following purposes it has been a long time in use,
and in every respect is much preferred:
For Hoisting from Deep Shafts and Incline Planes.
For Guy Bopes for Derricks.
For Pump Ropes for driving River Machinery.
For Suspension Cables for Water Conduits or Aqueducts.
For Signal Cord.
For Ferry Ropes.
For Ships' Standing Rigging,
For Tiller Ropes for Steamers.
For Guy Ropes for Smoke Stacks.
For Sash Cord for Window Sashes, Hanging Pictures, etc.
For Power Ropes, for conveying power to any distance.
,For Wire Tramways.
For Endless Wire Ropeway, for the transportation of ma-
terial over mountainous and difficult roads, etc.
For Steam Cultivation and Land Tillage.
MECIUSIC&L MINKBS OCIUK.
General Remarks on Wire Rope.
The numerous purposes to which rope is applied, its great
iug a large item in a mining company's expenses, ue-
Of economy in its application; therefore,
when it is satisfactorily proved, that by the application of
Wire instead of Hemp Ropes, a saving can be effected, it
should be a guarantee of its general adoption.
When the ruachiuery is properly arranged, and drums and
pulleys properly proportioned, the durability of Wire Rope
over the best quality of Hempen Ropes, is as 3 to 1. But
Wire Rope can be destroyed, like other rope, if badly used;
and as we do not claim for Wire Rope more than it deserves,
the surest test is a fair trial; but we do claim for it the follow-
ing advantages over other ropes, under a fair and legitimate
1st — It is less than two-thirds the weight of a dry Hemp
2d — It is but one-fonrth the weight of a wet Hemp Rope.
3d — It is less than one-half the size for same strength.
4th It does not stretch and shrink, (being unaffected by
the atmosphere, ) nor does it absorb moisture.
5th — It is three to five times as durable.
Oth — The excessive heat of the Summer sun does not rot it,
nor does the moisture of Winter cause it to swell.
7th — It can be spliced as easily, wet or dry — frozen or other-
wise — and more snugly and neatly than Hemp Rope.
8th — And lastly — We do not have to send to Manila or Rus-
sia, or any other foreign country, for the raw material, but
obtain it from the iron-fields of our own country, thus being
essentially a home-manufactured article.
MECHANICAL MINERS GUIDE.
Explanation of the Signs used in this Work.
Addition or plus, . . -f" Division, . . ~ Cube Boot, s/
Subtraction or minus, — Equal to, . = Square, . . 2
Multiplication, ... X Square Boot. \J Cube, . . . 3
On the Power of Blocks and Tackles.
RULE FOE ASCERTAINING THE POWER TO BE EXERTED IN RAISING
WEIGHTS BY PULLETS.
When only one Rope or Cord is used.
Kule — Divide the weight to be raised by the number of the
parts of the rope engaged in supporting the lower or move-
Ex. 1. What power is required to raise 1200 lbs. when the
lower block contains sis sheaves, and the end of the rope is
fastened to the upper block?
1200Ibs. ^- 12 = lOOlbs., the power to be exerted.
Ex. 2. Suppose the end of the rope is fastened to the
lower blocks, what power is required?
1200. -i- 13 = 92 4-13 lbs., the power to be exerted.
TO ASCERTAIN WHAT WEIGHT CAN BE RAISED BY CERTAIN POWER
, Kule - Multiply the number of the parts of the rope by the
Example. Suppose six parts of rope to be used and fifty
pounds power exerted — the weight that can be raised will be
Note — The Doyle Chain Pulley consists of a double and single
block, the upper block consisting of two chain sheaves, of
different diameters, fixed to each other — the lower block being
a single chain sheave. The*power gained being in proportion
to the difference in the diameters of the two upper sheaves —
the smaller the difference the greater the power, and vice
versa. The chain fall is endless and does not run back by the
load being hoisted.
MICUiSH »L MINKlis' ODDS, 9
Galvanised Iron Wire Hope for Ships' Stand-
Possesses many advantagi a over Hemp, requiring no strip-
ping or refitting, a* Hemp Rope must have every few
and bei iates the t ttontion and trouble
and shrinking of Hemp, and by its
extren laing but two-thirds tin? weight of Hemp,
increases the ship And the advantage
derived from the smaller surface opposed to the wind, (Wire
Rope being one-half the size of Hemp - ,) especially in beating
to windward, needs no comment — while for the jib and flying-
jib stays, its smallness and smoothness permit the hanks to
travel on it much more freely.
The following are some of the advantages of
1. Wire Rope is not affected by atmospheric changes, con-
sequently does not stretch and shrink in dry or wet weather,
avoiding the necessity of repeated setting up as in Hemp.
2. Wire Rope is 40 per cent, less weight than Hemp, sav-
ing so much top hamper.
3. Wire Rope is very much smaller for equal strength, and
having but four-tenths the surface of Hemp Rope exposed to
the wind, enables the ship to run closer to the wind.
i. Wire Rope is spliced equally well in all kinds of weather,
and much more neatly than Hemp.
5. The jib runs down Wire Rope freer, seldom requiring
the down haul.
<;. Wire Rope presents a neat and trim appearance, looks
ship-shape; and one suit of wire rigging in the absence of
it, will last the ship's life.
7. Lastly, and to ship owners very important! Wire Rope
COSTS VERY MUCH LESS than Hemp or Chain.
10 mechanical minees' guide.
Extract from the Report of the Secretary of the Navt,
" During the year twenty-three vessels have been wholly,
and several others partially, wire rigged. Tests of the com-
parative strength of Wire and Hemp Hope, and reports of
commanders of wire rigged vessels have been so satisfactory,
that the Bureau recommend the erection of a building, and
the purchase of necessary machinery for the manufacture of
wire rigging,*' (at Charlestown Navy Yard).
Extract from San Francisco "Times," August, 1867, in re-
ference to the burning of the ship " Blackwall" in
"The forehold, where the fire originated, was burned nearly
down to the shell — the forecastle was completely destroyed,
the foremast so badly burned that it will have to be taken out,
and the houses on deck were also rendered useless. It was a
fortunate thing that the ship's rigging was all wire; had she been
rigged with Hemp the shrouds would, of course, have caught fire,
and the masts and yards would in all probability have been
burned, and the difficulty of saving her would have been
Wire Rope possesses so many advantages for the standing
rigging of ships that it is rapidly displacing every other kind
As a Tiller Hope for river steamers, it is superior to chain,
being lighter, cheaper, and more easily managed, the objection
caused by the links of the slack chain catching in the rollers —
thus endangering the safety of the boat — is entirely removed.
Moreover, in case of a fire on board, it is free from danger,
while a Hemp or Raw Hide Rope, running as it does from
one end of the boat to the other, is the first thing to become
destroyed. With a Wire Rope, the pilot can stick to the helm
as long as the fire will permit him.
MECHANICAL MINERS' QUID*. 11
For Hanging Sashes, Pictures, Dumb Waiters, Clock-
Weights, and fob Signal Cobd.
This Cord is made from iron, steel and copper wire, is very
light, durable and pliable, and is not subject to rot. It has
been in use for many years for the purpose of hanging window
sashes, being much preferred to any other cord. No house
should be without it. (See List of Prices, on last page.)
Copper Wire Pope Lightning Conductors are much in use
among the shipping, as a protection against the effects of
lightning on a ship's mast. They are superior to any other
conductor as a protection against lightning for church spires,
tall chimneys, etc., are much more easily fixed, and do not get
out of order. (See List of Prices, on last page.)
Iron, Steel, Copper and Brass Wire, of all sizes and kinds,
constantly on hand and supplied to dealers on favorable terms.
Also, Baling and Suspension Bridge Wire. (See last page. )
MEOHAUICAL MINEES GUIDE.
Tensile Strengtli of Materials.
Weight or force necessary to tear asunder 1 in. square in lbs.
Copper 1)3. 32,500
Copper Wire " 61,200
Gold, cast. " 20,000
Iron.east, lis., 18,000 to 30,000
" medium bar, lbs. 50,000
Iron Wire .
Lead, cast lb
' ' milled . . .
Lignum Yitre .
Oak, Amer. -white
Oak, seasoned. . .
Pine, "pitch," ..
Note — The practical value of the above is about one-fourth.
, TO FIND THE STBENGTH OF DIBECT COHESION.
Bule. — Multiply area of transverse section in inches by
■weight given in the preceding table — the product is the
strength in Bis.
Example. — What is the strength of a bar of medium iron 2
Transverse section of 2 inches=4 inches, multiplied by
50,000, equals 200,000 lbs., tbe answer required.
The absolute strength of materials pulled lengthwise, is in
proportion to the square of their diameters.
.S«. 290 1 Slate
. " 16,000 Whalebone.
MECHANICAL MINEBS' OtTIDB. 13
Iron and Steit Wire Hope for Hoisting.
From Deep Shafts, Incline Planes or Slopes, it is particu-
larly veil ad - bo much lighter than other ropes or
chain, requires proportionately less power tu huist it, and oo-
• less than half the space on the drum. Its durability
m three to five tiroes thai of Hemp or Manila, and its
: i- ic»t increased or its fibres destroyed by working in
As a practical illustration of the advantages of Iron Wire
oyer Hempen Rope, we submit the following:
oad including Cage 3,000 lbs.
et, 2 in. diameter, dry Hemp Rope weighs.'. . 650 lbs.
A, ' t in. diameter, Iron Wire Rope 420 lbs.
V n lice in favor of "Wire Rope 230 lbs.
.■Ulowing 1 minute hoisting time, then '-^ X^4- = 57,500
. = I \ horse-power saved by using Iron Wire Rope.
difference in favor of Steel Wire Rope is still greater,
and may be summed up as follows: •
1st. Steel Wire Rope is three times as durable as the best
Manila or Hemp Rope.
2d. Steel Wire Rope weighs only four-tenths the weight of
Manila of equal strength, when dry, and one-fourth when
Manila or Hemp is wet.
3d. Steel Wire Rope is only one-third the thickness of
Manila of equal strength
4th. Steel Wire Rope possesses more springiness or elas-
ticity than any other Kind of rope.
5th. The first cost of Round Steel Wire Rope is 75 per
cent, the first cost of Manila Rope.
From the above, we iuvite Superintendents and Engineers
of Mining Companies using rope, especially in deep shafts, to
the following analysis of comparative cost, etc.
1st. Round Steel Wire Rope has been employed in Cali-
fornia, for over five years, in vicinities of Grass "Valley, Down-
k-vilk ami Columbia, and the durability usually exceeds four
times that of Manila.
14 MECHANICAL MINEBS' GUIDE.
2d. Take, for instance, a Manila Hope 2% inches thick,
1,000 feet of this size rope -will weigh about 2,200 lbs., wlien
dry. Round Steel Wire Rope, same strength and length, will
weigh 900 lbs., wet or dry. Difference in favor of Steel Rope,
1,300 lbs. For a 1,000-foot hoist, allowing two minutes,
— 2-° X — g- = 325,000 ft. lbs. — 10-horse-power; using say %
cord wood at $6 per cord = $3 per day or $1,080 per annum,
(3G0 days,) expended iu hoisting up a dead weight of Manila
Rope, over that of Steel Hope. Add to this the strain, wear
and tear of the machinery, and you will ascertain arjproxi-
mately what the present outlay is for hoisting ropes.
3d. The thickness of Round Steel "Wire Rope being one-
third that of Manila of equal strength, it takes proportion-
ately less room on the winding drum; thus 1,000 ft. Steel
Rope, % in. diameter, will wind on a drum five feet diameter
and four feet long, with a single layer, while it will require
three layers of Manila.
4th. Steel "Wire Rope, although possessing more springi-
ness in itself, does not stretch out like Manila, but takes back
the spring it has given out. This elasticity relieves the dead
strain on the rope, especially in case of sudden start of the
Life of Manila Rope, say 4 months, equal 3 ropes for
► 1 year, each rope costs, say $400 $1,200
Extra cost of fuel for hoisting dead weight, 1 year. . 1,080
Cost of 1 year running of Manila Rope $2,280
1 Round Steel Wire Rope equal to above 1 year 400
Annual saving effected by using Steel Wire Rope $1,880
We submit the above facts for your consideration and veri-
fication, modifying it to suit localities.
In applying Round Steel Wire Rope the groove of the pulley
over which the rope runs should be of the same form and size
as the rope employed, and all drums and pulley sheaves
should be 100 times the size of the rope,
MECHANIC AL MINERS' GCtDE. 15
The Transverse Strength of Materials.
The transverse strength of any beam or bar of wood or
metal is as the square of the depth multiplied by the breadth
and divided by the leugth between the supports.
The transverse strength of any square beam of equal length,
* is as th*e cube of their depth — and that of cylindrical beams
as the cube of their diameter.
The strength of a projecting beam is only one-fourth of
■what it would be if supported at both ends, and the weight
applied in the middle.
The strength of a projecting beam is only one-sixth of what
it would, be if fixed at both ends, and the weight applied to
The strength of a beam to support a weight in the centre
of it when the ends rest merely upon two supports, compared
to one the ends being fixed, is as 2 to 3.
Table of the Transverse Strength of American Timber.
Brcnkirisc W'ght Greatest Woigbt borne Value for
•* Seasoned." in lbs. deflection. with safety- general use.
White Oak 240 9 in. 196 fts. 30
Yellow Pine .... 150 1.7 " 100 30
White Pine 135 1.4" 95 32
Ash 175 2.4 " 105 25
Hickory 270 8 " 200 32
Each of the above was 1 foot long and 1 inch square with
weight suspended from one end.
Cylinder lfoot long.
Rre*king W'ght W'ght borne Value for
in lei, with aefetj. general nee.
White Pine, 2 in. diam . 610 460 20
White Pine, 1 in. diam. 75 56 20
16 MECHANICAL MINERS* GUIDE.
Transverse Strength— Continued.
Table of the Transverse Strength of Cast and Wrought American
Iron, weight suspended from one end.
Cylinder 1 foot long and 3 inches diameter.
Bn ii.'" .■ w'ght W'pht borne Valuo for
in lbs. wiili sufdy. genoral me.
Cast Iron, cold blast 12,000 8,000 300
Square Bar 1 foot long by 2 inches. .
Breaking w'ght W'ght borne Value for
in lbs, with safety, general me,
Cast Iron, cold blast ...... 5,781 4,000 450
Square Bar 1 foot long by 1 inch.
Deflection from W'ght Mist Deflection
W'ght borne horizontal plane gave a in Inches Value for
wilh safely, without rupture, pctmancnt with lost general
bend, weight, use,
Wrought Iron 1,520 lbs. 53° 600 1 300
The values above given are for good iron. If inferior iron
is used, a corresponding deduction should be made.
KTJLE TO FIND THE TRANSYEESE STRENGTH WHEN A RECTANGULAR .
BAR OR BEAM IS FIXED ON ONE^ END AND LOADED AT THE OTHER :
Multiply the value in the preceding table by the breadth and
square of the depth in inches, and divide the product by the
length in feet. The quotient is the weight in !bs.
N. B. When the beam is uniformly loaded throughout its
length, double the result.
Example. — What weight will a 2 in. square wrought iron bar
bear, projecting 2 ft. 6 in. in length?
Value for wrought iron, 300X2X2 3 =2400-^2£=960 B>s.
HT< HANIIAL MINEB9' GUIDE. 17
Traiwcerse Strengt h— Continued.
when the beam 13 fixed at both ends and loaded is the
Rule. Multiply the value in the preceding table by six
times the breadth, and the square of the depth in inches, and
divide by length in feet. The result must be doubled when
the weight is evenly distributed along its length.
Example. — What weight will a bar of cast iron 2 in. square
and 5 feet in length support in the middle, when fixed at the
Value for cast iron, 450X(6X2X2*=)48=21600-f-5=4320
WHEN THE BAB OB BEAM IS SUPPOBTED AT BOTH ENDS AND LOADED
TN THE MIDDLE :
Rule. Multiply the value in the preceding table by the
square of the depth, and four times the breadth in inches.
and divide the result by the length in feet.
Note. — When the weight is uniformly distributed, double
Example 1. What is the weight a cast iron bar 5 feet be-
tween the supports and 2 inches square, will support?
Value for cast iron, 450X2 2 =1300X(2X4) 8=144004-5=
2880 ft»8., answer.
Example 2. What is the weight a white pine beam, 10 feet
between supports, and 8 inches deep by 4 inches in breadth,
Value for white pine, 32X8 2 =2048X(4X1=)1C=32708-^10
=3276 8-10 lbs., answer required.
18 MECHANICAL MINEES' GUIDE.
Transverse Strength — Continued.
TO FIND THE DIAMETEE OF A SOLID CYLINDER TO SUPPORT A GIVEN
■WEIGHT IN THE MIDDLE BETWEEN THE SUPPORTS:
Rot,e. — Multiply the "weight in pounds by the length in feet,
divide by the value, and the cube root of % of the quotient
is the diameter in inches.
Example 1. What is the diameter of a cast iron cylinder 8
inches &ng between the supports, that will support 60,000
lbs. suspended in the middle?
60,000X1=40,0004-300 (value for cast iron cylinder)=133}
-f 1=33}, cube root of which is 3 1-5 inches, answer.
Example 2. What is the diameter of a white pine cylinder
2 feet long, to support same weight?
60,000X2=120,0004-20 (value) =6000-^1=1500, the cube
root of which is 21% inches, answer.
Oak, in seasoning, loses at least one-third of its weight, and
this process is facilitated by steaming or boiling.
By steaming, the specific gravity of a piece of Oak is re-
duced from 1050 to 711
By boiling, from 1081 to 788
By exposure to the air, from 1080 to 028
' Stiffness of Oak to Cast Iron, is as 1 to 13
Strength " " " " 1 to 1%
Wood is from 7 to 20 times stronger transversely than longi-
MECHANICAL ICINKB8 1 QUIDS. 19
■WIRE ROPE AS A SUSPENDED CARRIAGE WAY
FOB DKLXVXBXNO BOOK, .LUMHKli, KTC, OVKR OTHKBWISB INal:-
There are man; points in the mountains where it is imprac-
to build a roadway, railway track, or achate. In such
a place, a practical and economical method of delivering ma-
terial is to extend a Wire Rope from the upper to the lower
points, when it is not too long for a single span, stretching it
sufficiently tight to clear all points and obstructions, and on
this Wire Rope to run a pulley, below which hangs a basket
or box containing the rock — or, if it is lumber, a pulley at
each end of the lumber is necessaiy. In many cases in send-
ing down rock, etc., it is found better to use three pulleys,
two above and one below the rope, one of the upper pulleys
I in advance and the other behind the lower one. By this
menus the pulleys are kept in the same direction as the rope.
The pulley should be of a large diameter, the groove to be
of the same size as the rope.
The Endless Wire Kopeway system is adapted for deliver-
ing material across and over mountainous and difficult roads.
Wire Cables for Suspension Flumes or Water
For conveying water across deep galleys, canons, rivers, etc.,
with galvanized iron piping, joints, suspension rods, etc., etc.,
complete — the most economical way of carrying water over a
deep canon, etc. Guaranteed to keep in perfect order. Esti-
mates given, and materials furnished low.
20 MECHANICAL MINEBS' GUIDE.
Wire Mope for Suspending Hydraulic Hose or
Pipe Clear of a Cave.
The high bants down which a hydraulic hose descends are
very apt to cave and destroy the hose. In order to insure its
safety, a "Wire Hope is stretched from the top of the bank to
the bottom of the claim, at a sufficient angle to escape the
bank in case of a cave. To this Wire Eope the hose is at-
tached, and in such a position as to be perfectly secure from
any danger of destruction by the caving of the bank.
The loss of one hydraulic hose would buy many "Wire
Wire Strand for Fencing.
Made in half-mile lengths, coiled on reels, ready for stretch-
iug. Fences are put up very expeditiously by placing the
reels (as many as there are rails) in a wagon in such a manner
as to allow the strand to "pay out " behind, while the wagon
is hauled along the line of the proposed fence; the strand is
then lifted from the ground and secured to the posts by staples.
By this means a few men can fence in an immense amount of
land in a very short time. Strand being free from kinks, and
requiring no splicing or joining, can be put up much neater
and more expeditiously than a single thick wire.
' A "Wire Strand Fence, properly put up, will last a life time,
and when put up, it requires no further work.
By running a narrow strip of board along the top rail, any
objection to wire fence (wire strand is not open to this objec-
tion as much as a single wire) on account of wild cattle not
seeing it, can be easily obviated.
Galvanized "Wire Strand needs no painting, it being free
from rust, etc.
Wire for Fencing. All kinds of wire on hand either galvan-
ized or not.
[For list of prices, see last page.]
MECHANICAL MINERS* GCIDK. 21
Iron and Steel Ferry Hope,
Stretched across the river, being lighter, is more easily set up,
and being perfectly round and smaller, it allows the pul-
ley blocks to mu much freer and more rapidly over the rope,
and removes the sudden strain caused by checking (as with a
Hemp Rope) when the boat is in the centre of the stream,
and does not require the constant attention of the ferryman
to set up or alack off the rope according to the state of the
weather; and as the sun does not rot it, it can be kept stretched
during the summer Iron sheaves should in no case be used
on Wire Ferry Rope, xoiless the groove of sheave properly fits
For a Stringing Ferry, where the rope lays in the water, it
does not rot — nor does it, like Hemp, absorb the water until
it becomes water-logged and clumsy. Hemp Rope, thus sat-
urated, will have four times the weight of Wire Rope placed
in the "same position: thus in slack water, with Wire Rope
there is no useless expenditure of the force of the current in
carrying the rope across ; and consequently, smaller and
lighter buoys are required.
N. B. — "We have had Wire Ropes working as above for seven
Ferry Blocks furnished complete.
Steel Wire Hope for Derrick Fall Mopes
Works to great advantage, especially if the hoisting is done
by water or steam-power. The sheaves are made of cast iron
10 to 14 inches diameter, the groove of which conforms to the
sue of the rope— for ordinary work, a Steel Rope Y t inch
thick is sufficient for the purpose. A Fall of this kind prop-
erly put on, will outlast five or six-rflanila Falls, and occupy
one-sixth the space on the drum.
22 MECHANICAL MINBEs' GUIDE.
Wire Rope for "Derrick Guys,' 9
The universal adoption of the Derrick for working deep
claims in the river bars, etc., in preference ti^any other meth-
od, being much cheaper and more expeditious, has drawn at-
tention to its erection, and to the necessity of keeping the
derrick mast in its proper position. With Manila Guy Ropes
this is impossible. The constant stretching and shrinking of
Hempen Ropes require the almost constant slacking and
tightening of them, according to the state of the atmosphere;
and when the mast leans out of its position, it is almost im-
"possible to swing the boom to its proper point. .
Wire Rope being unaffected by the weather, this trouble and
expense is saved; being 40 per cent, lighter, it is much more
easily and more tightly set up; and as the sun does not rot
and destroy its fibres by its being exposed to the summer heat,
it will last an incredibly long time.
Wire Mope for River Mining,
For Pump Hopes, especially if of a great length, the advan-
tage of using Wire Rope is obvious. A Grip Pulley, see page
2\ is fixed to the shaft of the water wheel and pump, a Wire
Rope is used to transmit the power. See page 29. The fact
that when spliced and put on the grip pulleys, the Wire Rope
does not stretch and allow the pump to stop working, is a
matter of very great moment to the river miner, saving him
an immense amount of trouble and care; and those who have
once experienced the loss of time and monev by the filling up
with water of a large and deep pit, can more fully appreciate
MIVIlWlCAL IIIXKRS' OUIOX.
Measure of Sock, Earth, Etc.
25 cubic feet of sand = 1 Ion.
18 cubic feet of earth = 1 ten.
17 oniric feel ofcclay — 1 ton.
13 cubir Feel of quartz, unbroken in lode, = 1 ton.
18 cubic feet of gravel or earth, before digging, = 27 cubic
feet when dug.
20 cubic feet of quartz broken (of ordinary fineness coming
from the lode), = 1 ton contract measurement.
Weight of a Cubic foot of different material.
Gravel (wet) 145
Loose Earth 106
Compact Earth 125
Salt (common) 133
Cast Iron 450
Wrought Iron 480
Silver (pure cast) 655
Gold (pure cast) 1203
Lignum Vitee 83
Live Oak 70
Pitch Pine 41
Velocity of Streams and Resistance of Soils.
Ordinary nature of current.
Rapid Floods, (extra-
Torrents and Catar'cts
Materials that resist these
velocities and yield to
more powerful ones.
Wet Ground— Mud.
24 MECHANICAL MlNEBs' GUIDE.
TRANSMISSION OP POWER BY WIRE ROPES.
"Wire Bope is employed extensively for conveying power
from one point to another, as in the case of a mill situated
half a mile or so from the water-wheel from which power is
obtained, and has been found to be very economical and dura-
ble. In France and Germany, "Wire Eope is used wherever
an economical motive power exists and can be attached, in
many cases there being 5 or 6 miles between the motive power
and the machinery to be set in motion. Considerable atten-
tion is now paid to this method of transmission, and the
economy and simplicity of its application are very strong re-
commendations in its favor. The manufacture of flexible
ropes from steel wire, having great strength, with lightness
and elasticity, insures the extensive application of this system.
Evidently the power which can be transmitted by this plan,
under given conditions, depends upon the adhesion existing
between the rope and the pulley, and the amount of this ad-
hesion determines the velocity of motion of the rope, in order
to transmit any given power. "When, by a peculiar construc-
tion of the pulley, the adhesion is made equal, or nearly so,
to the strength of the rope, the velocity of the rope can be
made to be quite slow, while at the same time transmitting
great power. For this purposes, the rims of the pulleys are
made up of a great number of clips operating on the principle
of the toggle joint, to clamp the rope firmly between them
while they are drawn down together by the force of the strain
that is put upon the rope. As soon as the rope is released
from strain, the clips open readily for its free escape as it
leaves the pulley. From experiments made with Grip Pulleys
of this construction, which have been patented, it has been
ascertained that the gripping power varies with the angle at
which the clips are set, and is from 50 to 120 times the strain
of the slack rope, or of the rope paying on from the slack
side. The shape of that part of the clip which receives the
rope is the same as that of the rope, and since there is no
MECHANICAL MDiEBS OCTDE.
slipping of the rope between the clips, the wear upon it when
in use is very slight. By reference to the cut, the operation
of the clips will be readily understood.
Patent Grip JPtillei/.
The rope is denoted by h; i, t are clips working on a ful-
crum, xx. The rope pressing on the clips at the bottom , as it
enters them, causes them to close over it, gripping it securely
and preventing its slipping. The part of the rim, k, is cast
26 MECHANICAL MINERS' GUIDE.
separately, and bolted to the main wheel, I, by a bolt.
The rim of the wheel is cast with recesses to take the clips,
fitting to them and allowing them to work freely; while the
clips cannot possibly be displaced, except by removing the
part, k, which is cast separate for this purpose. From this it
will be readily understood that the rope is grasped as soon as
the pressure begins to act on the clips, and is released as soon
as the pressure is removed, the whole acting automatically
and invariably. For conveying power over long distances, this
feature is of the greatest value. In this system the rope is
made of strength sufficient for the transmission, and moves
at a velocity of from 300 to 800 feet per minute.
AVith the high speed system the rope is of smaller size, and
travels at a velocity of from 1,500 to 6,000 feet per minute.
In order to prevent the too rapid wear of the rope, the high
speed pulleys are made with gutta percha seating for the rope.
A dovetailed groove is made in the rim of the pulley, into
which the gutta percha is forced in the shape of small blocks,
dovetailing on the sides, and having a score on the top. When
the groove is filled with these blocks, they present a firm and
elastic seat for the rope, giving the greatest adhesion possible
under the circumstances.
By referring to acconijmuying cut, the mode of constructing
the high srjeed wheel will be understood; a much smaller
rope is required, the proportion being as the velocity.
siou iiniu quids.
6 qf rim.
Section of arm
In many places in France and Germany, vast amounts of
power arc transmitted. At Shaffhausen, Switzerland, the
water-fall is economized through an overshot water-wheel, and
by means of "Wire Rope, 600-horse-power are transmitted for
a distance of one mile, and thence distributed by means of
other smaller Wire Hopes to various factories. The whole
Pacific Coast is full of water-powers, and a knowledge of this
mode of transmission of power will make many of these water
A table of dimensions and velocities has been inserted,
which will be found convenient for reference in ascertaining
the size and speed of ropes and pulleys, to transmit any given
power, either by high speed and smooth pulleys, or by low
f-peed, and the patent grip pulleys.
28 MECHANICAL MINEEs' GUIDE.
TABLE OP DIMENSIONS AND VELOCITIES.
mtcBANirAi. miners' orn>E :il
TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIAL OVER
MOUNTAINOUS OR OTHER PLACES BY
THE PATENT ENDLESS WIRE ROPE-
WAY OR WIRE TRAMWAY.
By this system, immense amounts of material can he con-
veyed over the most mountainous and nigged country, under
all climatic difficulties, and at very little cost.
This mode of transporting ores, etc., from the mine to the
mill or furnaces, has been introduced in many places with
great success. By referring to the cut a general idea is given
of the arrangement, but it may be described »s follows: At
certain distances, say from one hundred and fifty to three
hundred feet between the mine and the mill, are erected sub-
stantial posts, each post having a cross arm at the top, to the
extremities of which are attached two sheaves, a lower and
upper, placed one immediately over the other, and which re-
volve freely on a horizontal spindle. The groove of the lower
sheave is made exactly to fit to half the circumference of a
wire rope which runs in it, and the groove of the upper covers
one-fourth the circumference of the same rope so that it is im-
possible for it to leave its place. At the mine, and also at the
mill, or reducing works, these points being the extremities of
the line, a grip pulley is placed horizontally. Around these
pulleys, and along the entire line, supported and kept in posi-
tion by the sheaves attached to the posts, there is stretched
an Endless Steel "Wire Bope. On this, at distances of about
50 to 150 feet, are firmly attached receptacles for conveying
and transporting ores, goods, etc, which in virtue of a pecu-
liar arrangement, pass freely alongside and by various obsta-
cles in the way of posts, sheaves, etc., up hill and down,
around corners and over gorges, until they reach the mill,
where they discharge their contents by a self-dumping or other
32 MECHANICAL MINEES* GUIDE.
contrivance. The descending boxes, fixed on a rope, "which
is a double or endless one, carry themselves down by their
own weight where there is sufficient descent, and the part of
the rope to which they are attached with them ; while the other
portion of the rope with the empty boxes is carried back to
the mine. Usually there is no separation of the receptacles
containing the ore from the Wire Eope at any time during its
transit, aod they pass the various sheaves and pulleys without
interruption. The function of the grip pulleys is to hold the
rope, so as to prevent its slipping in the groove. Sometimes,
the difference in altitude between the mill and the mine is
sufficient to obtain by gravitation quite an amount of power,
which is transmitted by the grip pulleys for -what ever purpose
it is required, (and where there is no power obtained in this
manner, it is given by a water wheel or steam engine.) The
receptacles fire small sacks, self-dumping boxes, or other ar-
rangemeLt, which contain from 50 to 300 pounds of ore or
other material, and the manner of attachment to the rope is
exceedingly simple and effective. One can readily see the
great many advantages that this method possesses, from the
fact that it requires neither road to be built nor expensive
machinery; that it can be run at all seasons of the year, when
there is a great depth of snow on the ground; that it can be
rapidly and cheaply constructed in the worstpossible country;
and that when there is sufficient grade, not only does it run
itself by gravitation, but produces a motive power at both
ends of the hue. Bunning at 200 feet per minute, the boxes
are carried down one side of the posts and up the other, 240
per hour, each delivering 100 pounds of ore, or 12 tons per
hour, and they can be run 24 hours per day. The total cost
of laying down this endless way is from $6,000 to $12,000 per
mile, and the cost of carrying the ore about 12 cents per ton
mkcbaxicjx wxras* ouidb. 33
The foregoing system is applicable for the following pur-
F<>r conveying ores from the mine to the mill.
For conveying light loads of any material from place to
For transporting lumber across difficult points, and to ship-
ping in an offing.
For conveying passengers across gorges, chasms, and over
For supplying water to reservoirs across chasms, etc.
The advantages claimed are:
Ko grading or road building is required.
It can work under all circumstances of weather, with great
depths of snow on the ground, during heavy storms and
It can run constantly without rest; as well during a dark
night as a clear day.
It can cross deep gorges and chasms.
It can pass around precipitous bluffs and perpendicular
The rope can never leave ihe posts or sheaves.
It can furnish and transmit power, when there is sufficient
descent, by its own gravitation, or by an engine attached to
It cau be constructed and worked cheaper than any other
system or road can be constructed and worked.
By using the duplex earner it can convey any material, such
as lumber, goods, ores, and even passengers, from place to
34 MECHANICAL MINERS* GUIDE.
[From the Scientific Press, Feb. 18, 1871.]
"We illustrate to-day an invention, recently patented by Mr.
A. S. Kallidie, of this city, for the rapid and economical trans-
portation of such material as ores, lumber or goods, over a
rough and otherwise inaccessible country, as well as for the
transmission of power from one point to another. The in-
vention is one of very considerable merit, and as it concerns
a matter of the greatest importance to miners and many others
on our coast, we describe it fully.
The invention consists in the use of endless Iron or Steel
"Wire Ropes, supported on peculiar sheaves, placed on posts,
actuated by the gravity of the descending loads, or by an en-
gine attached to a grip pulley, and carrying burdens in the
manner hereafter described. Similar inventions have been
made before, and the merit of this, therefore, depends on the
peculiar construction and adaptation to the wants of the
By reference to the various diagrams appended, this system
of Mr. Hallidie's will be fully understood.
Fig. 1 shows a section of a rough mining region, with the
undulations and depressions incidental to such a country,
over which it is desired to transport, ore from the mine, A, to
the mill, B, distant, say one mile or more. At proper points,
from 200 to 600 (usually 250) feet £part, are erected posts, c,
with guide-sheaves, on which the rope travels. For the sate
of illustration, sacks, o, are shown, in the cut, suspended by
proper devices to the rope. Near A and B, at each end of the
rope-way, are placed horizontal grip pulleys, devised by Mr,
'Hallidie, 8 to 12 feet in diameter, around and in the groove
of which runs an endless "Wire Rope of sufncieut length to
extend from one pulley to the other and back, so that the full
sacks, or cars, can be run down on one side and back empty
on the other.
Fig. 2 shows the construction of the supporting posts.
These are set firmly in the ground, and have on top a cross-
beam, on each extremity of which are placed grooved sheaves,
«, 6, freely revolving on spindles attached to the cross-arm,
and so arranged, one over the other, that the rope will run
MECHANICAL MINKR9' GUIDE.
between them. The lower sheave, '», supports the rope, and
the upper one, a, keeps it from jumping out of place. In
order to give a clear idea, a car, D, is shown on one side, and
a Back, E, on the other.
Attached to the Wire Hope at equal distances apart, usually
about every 50 feel, are peculiarly constructed carriers. Figs.
3 and 4 show these and the manner of attaching them to the
Win Rope; Fil;. 3 giving a side view and Fig. 4 an end view.
Here, a and b are the sheaves, o the rope, and C, the car. The
carrier supports a frame d, which is hung on standards, c, in
such a manner that the carriers will always maintain a hori-
zontal position, whether going up hill or down. The stand-
ards, c, are attached to the carrier,/, shown on a larger scale
in Fig. 5. The end of the bar is swaged out into a band which
encircles the "Wire Rope and is riveted to the bar, so as to hold
the rope sufficiently to prevent slipping. The carrier, /, is
about one-half the thickness of the rope, and as the center
of gravity of the load comes vertically below the Wire Eope,
this carrier always stands out horizontal, and thus allows the
load to be carried past the sheaves and pulleys without inter-
ference. One end of the car is an apron, e, which enables
the load to dump itself as it passes between guides at the
point of delivery.
Instead of such a car, sacks may be used if preferred. The
simpler arrangement for attaching the sacks, essentially the
same as in the case of the car, is shown at g, Fig. 2.
MECHANICAIi MINEBS' aUIDE.
Fig. 6 shows the patent grip pulley employed at each end
of the line, and which is placed horizontally; Fig. 7 is a sec-
tion of the rim of the pulley, showing the mode of construc-
tion. The rope is denoted by hj i, i are clips working on a
fulcrum, x, x. The rope pressing on the clips at the bottom,
as it enters them, causes them to close over it, gripping it
securely and preventing its slipping. The part of the rim k,
is cast separately, and bolted to the main wheel, I, by the bolt,
m, m. The rim of the wheel is cast with recesses to take the
clips, fitting them and allowing them to work freely; while
the clips cannot possibly be displaced, except by removing the
part, k, which is cast separate for thiB purpose.
From this it will be readily understood that the rope is
grasped as soon as the pressure begins to act on the clips, and
is released as soon as the pressure is removed, the whole act-
ing automatically and invariably. For conveying power over
long distances, this feature is of the greatest value.
MECliiNIClL MlXElis urihK.
A car is shown in Fig. 8, which may be found very useful
in certain cases, as it economizes in manual labor. A car is
mounted on wheels so that it can be run into the mine. It
has a carrying frame above it, the longitudinal beam of which
is inclined so as to correspond with that of the standards.
Both are toothed, the former on its lower, the latter on its up-
per side. Now if the cur be run into position when the stand-
ards, which are attached to the rope, como around, they will
catch and carry off the car without any manual labor. The
teeth on the beams prevent any slipping.
The general system and manner of working of the rope-way
will now be understood by a glance at Fig. 1. By it, material
can be transported from a higher to a lower, or from a lower
to a higher point. In the last case, power must be applied,
■which can be done directly from a stationary engine at one
end by means of the grip pulley; in the first case, often no
extra power will be needed, the gravity of the descending
loads being sufficient to keep the rope in motion.
In erecting this system, after the route has been decided
on, posts are placed on the prominent points, being of a suffi-
cient height that the rope may be clear from all obstructions
on the ground — as snow, rocks, cattle, etc. At suitable dis-
tances between these (which serve to fix the principal points
of the line), say 200 feet apart, other posts are erected to sup-
MECHANICAL MINERS' GUIDE.
port and lead the traveling Wire Kope. The height and num-
ber of these are regulated by the configuration of the line and
the necessities for sustaining the rope.
The posts being in position and the grip pulleys being in
■working order, the coil of "Wire Eope is placed at the upper
terminus of the line, and one end is put in the grip pulley
and carried along from one post to another, being placed be-
tween the sheaves on the posts. A brake attached to the grip
pulley regulates the paying out of the rope. One coil being
exhausted, the end of the next one is joined to it by a long
splice, and the operation is continued until the rope" has been
carried down one side. Another "Wire Rope is then, iu a sim-
ilar manner, brought down the other side, and the two ends
are spliced, the Wire Eope being placed in the groove of the
upper pulley. By means of a powerful purchase at the lower
end the rope is stretched tight, spliced aud put iu the lower
At the lower end, provision is made by a suitable frame and
apparatus, for taking up the slack which occurs for some days
after the rope is put on, and then disappears. The carriers
are then attached and the line is ready for work.
READ THE FOLLOWING:
Eureka, Nevada, July 10th, 1872.
<T. M. Martin — My Dear Sin: On your leaving for San
Francisco, it gives me great pleasure to hand you my written
acceptance of the Hallidie Tramway put up by you upon
our mine in Freiburg.
It is a perfect success, discharging ten tons of ore per hour
with two men's labor. It is perfectly simple in construction,
and, as far as I can judge, there is nothing about it to ever
get out of order — nothing to wear out. While ours requires
but about two thousand five hundred feet of Wire Eope, I can
see no reason why the line could not be extended almost in-
definitely with equally happy results. Again, the carrying
MKCHANICAL MINERS* QULDE. 39
capacity might be doubled or quadrupled if desired. After
ware) weeks trie! upon our mine, the unanimous verdict of
all who have Been it is n complete, unquestioned success. If
this oen be of any service to you, use it in any way you think
C. C. GOODWIN.
Emma Hn.y. Consolidated Huong Co.,
Little Cottonwood, Utah,
Superintendent's Office, Sept. 28th, 1872.
T. M. Mautix, Esq. — Sib: The Ropeway constructed by
yon (Hallidie's Patent), for the Emma Hill Consolidated Min-
ing Company, has been built in a most substantial and "work-
manlike manner, and is at this time in splendid working con-
dition. I most cheerfully accept the work for the Company,
and recommend it to others wishing a sure and speedy transit
for ores over places impracticable for wagon roads, etc.
L. TJ. COLBATH, Superintendent.
The Vallejo Ropeway,
The Vallejo Tunnel Company's Tramway in Little Cotton-
wood, built on the Hallidie Patented Plan, is a complete suc-
cess. It is between 2,300 and 2,400 feet in length, and is
supported by thirteen stations. The fall in this distance is
about GOO feet, and the Wire Rope, which is three-fourths of
an inch in diameter, will safely and easily deliver one hundred
tons in six hours. The machinery is automatic, loading and
unloading the sacks or buckets. The stations are about two
hundred feet apart, and the entire apparatus is strong and
safe. As the Wire Rope is elevated about forty feet above the
surface of the hill, the Tramway can be worked all winter
long, without the slightest trouble. — Utah Mining Journal,
Salt Lake, Sept. 23d, 1872.
40 MECHANICAL MINEES' GUIDE.
Patent Grip Pulleys.
These pulleys are made expressly for the purpose of trans-
mitting power by means of Steel or Iron Wire Hopes.
By referring to the diagrams on pages 25 and 36, figs. 6 and
7, and the description on same pages, their mode of action
can he readily understood.
By means of these Grip Pulleys it is possible to transmit
power from one point to another, and to the limit of the
strength of the rope employed.
It will thus be seen that fchis arrangement is adapted for
conveying power from a waterfall in a river, or where there is
a large stationary engine, to any point desired, one, three or
five miles distant, the Wire Hope being supported on sheaves
at intervals in order to keep the rope off the ground, and lead
it in the proper direction.
As a means of transmitting power from a portable steam
engine to a thrashing machine it enables the farmer to keep
his steam engine sufficiently far from the grain to avoid con-
It is the most economical and convenient mode of trans-
mitting power, and is available for innumerable cases, and any
locality, as the rope cannot slip in the groove, and the pulley
does not wear the rope, as a concave dram, capstan, or figure
of 8 pulley does.
For hoisting works in a mine where a car is attached to
both ends of the rope, for an inclined, vertical or horizontal
shaft, it is admirably adapted, economizing in machinery and
wear of rope.
For steam plowing by means of ropes it works to great ad-
vantage, being much simpler in its action than any other form
These pulleys are made all sizes, but the size of the grip
pulley should not be less than 100 times the size of the rope.
Hoisting Engine showing Grip Pulley working hoisting rope in vertical shdfl, or transmittu
ay power to lower levels.
Application of Grip Pulley for Hauling and Lowering Ore Car* o i fm-Ui
, •■. v,^,.
Application of Grip PnVeyn for Transmitting Power.
victusical mimes' onDE. 41
To Ascertain Telocity of Water in a Brook.
Etxi — Take the number of inches that a floating body
posses over in one second in the middle of the current, and
extract its sqnare root; double this root, subtract it from the
Telocity at lop, and add 1; the result will be the -velocity of
the stream at the bottom— and the mean velocity of the stream
is equal to the velocity of the surface, less the square root of
the velocity at the surface +.5.
Example. If the velocity at the surface and middle of a
stream be 36 inches per second, what is the mean velocity?
Square root of 3C=CX2=12 to bo subtracted from 36=24,
add 1=25 inches per second, velocity at bottom. Then 36
less 6=30 add .5=30.5 inches, answer, mean velocity.
To Find the Quantity of Water which will Flow
Out of an Opening.
Rule. — Multiply the square root of the depth of the water
by 5.4; the product .is the velocity in feet per second: this
multiplied by the area of the opening in feet will give the
number of cubic feet per second.
Example. If the centre of an opening is 10 feet below the
surface of the water, and its area is 2 feet, what quantity of
water will run out in one minute?
^10=3.16X5.4X2=34.1496 feet =(34 1-7 feet.)
Water will fall through 1 foot in % second, 4 feet in Y % sec-
ond, 9 feet in % second, and so on — being actuated by the
same laws as falling bodies.
42 MECHANICAL MINEKS* GUIDE.
On the Size of Pulleys, Drums, etc.
We cannot too strongly call the attention of the mechanic
and miner to the general errors committed in proportioning
the Pulley, Drum, or Whirls, of hoisting or driving gear. We
■would remind Ihem that when a pulley is under a certain
diameter for certain sized ropes, be the rope of Hemp or Wire,
it •will very soon destroy the fibres by the constant chafing
and wearing of the internal portion of the rope, long before
it has had a chance to test its strength or durability. An ex-
amination of any rope after running for some time on a pul-
ley of a small diameter, -will fully and clearly demonstrate the
fact to the examiner, moreover, as it requires some exertion
to bend a rope around a small circle, an unprofitable expend-
iture of power is required, aDd besides there is a loss of fric-
tional surface, and this is a serious matter in driving heavy
machinery when the grip pulley is not employed; therefore,
it jb very essential that the diameter of the drum or pulley
should be attended to, and for the guidance of those erecting
such machinery, we offer them the following general rule:
Rule. — For Wire Rope, the pulley or drum should be 100
times the size of the rope. For Hemp Rope , the pulley should
be 50 times the size of the rope. For Flat Iron Rope, the
diameter of same«should be not less than 150 times the thick-
ness of the rope.
It will be seen that the same size pulleys answer for both
Wire and Hemp Rope of tlie same strength.
[See Table of Comparative Strength of Ropes.]
tmsmw d.s.wKvfcvuvtaik'Jiwss-.Y/- -==
MECHANICAL MINEBS* GCIDE. 43
Wire Suspension Bridges and Flumes.
Having been engaged for fourteen years in building Wiro
Suspension Bridges and Flumes, I am prepared to do such
work in a thorough and economical manner.
I have built and erected Bridges and Flumes in almost
every portion of the State, of spans varying from 200 to 400
feet; all of which have been constructed to the owners' satis-
faction, and to whom I take pleasure in referring those who
are about to build.
My facilities for erecting these bridges are unequalled. All
the wire employed by me is drawn for that purpose expressly,
and to parties about to build I would say that I can erect their
whole work in a thorough manner; or, I will furnish plans
and specifications of their bridges and all wire and iron work,
at a low and satisfactory figure.
An examination made by a competent engineer and definite
estimates of the cost of all or any portion given if desired,
upon payment of expenses.
In small blasts 1 lb powder will loosen 4% tons.
In large blasts 1 lb powder will loosen 2% tons.
One man can bore with a bit 1 inch diameter from 50 to 100
inches per day of 18 hours, in granite, or 300 to 400 inches
per day in limestone.
Two strikers and a holder can bore with a 2 inch bit 10 ft.
per day in rock of medium hardness.
At the depth of 45 feet the temperafaire of the earth is
uniform throughout the year.
MECHANICAL MDJEES' GUIDE.
Velocity of Water in Pipes and Sewers.
Table of the heads of water necessary to maintain different veloc-
ities of water in 100 feet of pipe.
V represents the velocities in feet per minute, and C the
constant number for those velocities.
Table of the constant number for different velocities.
D represents diameter of pipe, in inches, and c the constant
number for their diameters.
Roxe. Then when H represents the head of water DXC=H.
Example. It is required to determine what head of water
would be necessary to send water through 1500 feet of six-
inch pipe, to an elevation of 80 feet, and at a velocity of 180
feet per minute.
C. =62.134- (6+C.078) 6.078=10.22 in. which X 15 (the
'number of 100 feet) =153.3 in. (12 ft. 9 in.) this added to
80 gives 92 ft. 9% in., answer.
The time occupied in an equal quantity of water through a
pipe or sewer of equal length and with equal falls, is propor-
tionately as follows: In a right line, as 90, in a true curve,
as 100, and in a right angle as 140.
MECHANICAL MIXERS' GUIDE. 45
Overshot Water- lfTieel.
Rcxe to ascertain Poweb. — Multiply the weight of water,
in lbs., discharged npon the wheel in one minute, by the height
or distance, in feet, from the lower edge of the wheel to the
centre of the opening in the gate; divide the product by 50,-
000, and the quotient is the number of horses' power.
Example. Suppose the weight of water discharged per
■ minute is 39,000 lbs. If the height of the fall is 23 feet, the
diameter of the wheel 22, what is the power of the wheel?
22 feet less 8 inches clearance below=22' 4"=22.33. 39,000
RULE TO ASCERTAIN VELOCITY OF WaTEE AND WEIGHT PES
MINUTE, IN POUNDS, DISCHAEGED ON OVERSHOT WateB-WHEEL. —
Extract square of height of head of water (from surface to
middle of gate) and multiply by 8 if the opening is large and
head small; if the reverse, multiply by 5.5; or, from 8 to 5.5
in proportion to size of opening and head of water.
Example. The dimensions of the stream are 2 by 80 inches,
with a head of 2 feet to upper surface of water. What is the
velocity of the water per minute?
2 feet plus half of 2 ins. =25 ins. =2.08, the square of which
is 1.44X6.5 (estimate of velocity)=9.36><60=561.60 feet.
"What is its weight?
Example. 80 inohes X2X6739.20 inches (=561.60 feet) =
1,078,272-^1728 (inches in a cubic foot)=624 cubic feetX62J<
lbs. (weight of cubic foot of water)=39,000 Sis. weight dis-
charged in one minute.
Length of Cut Nails and number in one lb.
MECHANICAL MINEBS GUIDE.
Weight of Bar Iron.
Square, from % to 2% Inch, and 1 foot long.
Round Bar from % to 2% inches diameter and lfoof long.
W't in lbs.
Ft in tba.
W'i in iba.
Flat Bar from %x% to 5x1 and Xfoot long.
To convert into weight of other metals, multiply the above
for Cast Iron hy .93; for Steel X 1-01; for Copper X 1.15;
for Brass X l- 09 ! for Lead X 1-48; for Zinc X -92.
MECHANICAL MISKRS' OCTDE.
Height of a Superficial Foot of Plates, Differ-
ent Metals, in Pounds.
.0625 = 10 B
.25 = 4
23 . .',
XI . s
Melting Points of Alloys.
Lend 2, tin 3, bismuth 5 3120
Lead 1, tin 3, bismuth 5 210
Lead 1, tin 4, bismuth 5 240
Tin 1, bismuth 1 286
Tin 2, bismuth 1 336
Lead 2, tin 3 334
Tin 8, bismuth 1 392
Lead 2, tin 1, (solder) 475
Lead 1, tin 2 (soft solder) 360
Zinc 1, tin 1 31)9
Lead 1, tin 1 308
Lead 1, tin 1, bismuth 4, cadmium 1 155
75 parts of lead, 16 7-10ths parts of antimony, 8 3-10ths parts
bismuth, forms a metallic alloy that expands in cooling.
MECHANICAL MINEBS GUIDE.
Size, Weight, Length and Strength of Iron Wire.
a u ~
Sizes "Wire expressed in Fractions of an Inch.
No. 000 full, % inch.
" 00 " 11-32 "
" 5-16 "
1 " 9-32 "
3 full, % inch.
6 " 3-16
8 " 5-32 "
11 " K "
The tensile strength of the best tempered Steel Wire is
fully double the above.
Annealing Wire reduces its tensile strength about 40 per
MFcmxirAi. hikers' r.riDE.
A ripe of Cast Iron, 15 inches diameter, * 4 inch thick, will
sustain a head of water of 600 feet. One of Oak, 2 inches
thick, same diameter, will sustain a head of 180 feet.
When the cohesion is the same, thickness varies as the
height multiplies by the diameter.
In sandy soil, the greatest force of a pile-driver will not
drive a pile over 15 feet.
Table of the Value of an Ounce of Gold, of dif-
ferent degrees of fineness.
Fineness. $ eta.
Fineness. S cts.
. S cts.
Fineness. S cts.
8 S 8
A horse-power is equivalent to 33,000 lbs. raised one foot
high in one minute.
River Pump. — To construct and use a chain pump to the
best advantage, the distance between the buckets should be
equal to their breadth; and the pump barrel should have an
inclination of 24° 21". With this arrangement it produces a
Water Required in Working Quartz.
Each stamp uses 10 pounds per minute.
Each pan uses 1G pounds per minute.
Each settler uses 9 pounds per minute.
If the water is run from the mill into settling tanks it can
be saved with a loss of 20 per cent. This will make the actual
supply of water required in pounds per minute to be as fol-
1 Stamp , 2.
1 Pan 3.2
1 Settler 1.8
MECHANICAL MINEES' GUIDE.
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|" | | | | I | | | | xgxx | xxx$
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XIi UANICAL MINKIS' OCIDE.
Iron Wire Strand for Fencing and Signal Oord.
Diameter Id inches
Price per 100 feet, Common
Price per 10O feet, Galvanized $2 10 2 55
Iron and Copper "Wire Cords.
For Window Sashes, Dumb Waiters, Picture Cords, Signal Cords.
Circumference in inches
Price per yard. Iron
" " Galvanized Iron...
" *' Copper
Gold and Silver Plated Picture Cord.
Circumference in inches..
Price per yard
52 MECHANICAL MISERS GUIDE.
PRICES OP WIRE ROPES.
round ropes. coarse, flexible.
Hoisting Rope of Iron Wire
Hoisting Rope of Steel Wire
Galvanized Eope for Bigging
c. per lb.
c. per lb .
c. per lb.
Iron Wire j c. per lb.
Steel Wire ! c.perlb.
BEIGHT AND ANNEALED MABKET IRON WIBE.
Nos 0to6 I 7to9 110 and 111 12 113 and 141 15 and 16 |]7|18
Cts.pertt. 9 | 10 | 11 |113$| 12J$ ] 14 1 15 1 16
COPPEBED MABKET WIBE, same list as above. Disc.
COPPERED PAIL WIBE, " " Disc.
ANNEALED STONE WIBE.
Nos 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 1 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
Cts. per it. 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 1 28 29 30 32 33 35 37 40
GALVANIZED IBON WDJE.
Nos 0to6| 7to9 I lOandlll 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 116 117
Cts. per lb. 16 | 17 | 18 | 20 I 22 | 24 | 26 [28 1 30
Nos to 9 110 and 11112 to 14|15andl6|17|18 to 20|21and22|22 to 24
Cts. per lb. 15 | 16 | 17 I 17JS |l8| 20 I 21 | 22
Coppered Spring Wire for Mattrass, Sofa and Chair Springs.
STEEL WIBE, TELEGRAPH WIBE, COPPEB WIBE,
FENCE WIBE, BRASS WIBE, SOLDEB WIBE.
And all kinds of Special Wire mode to order.